The maximum speed is 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph), and her range at maximum speed is 3,800 nautical miles (7,000 km; 4,400 mi). In the 1980s the Soviet Navy acquired its first true aircraft carrier, Tbilisi (subsequently renamed Fleet Admiral of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov).. Naval Aviation declined as well from its height as Soviet Naval Aviation, dropping from an estimated 60,000 personnel with some 1,100 combat aircraft in 1992 to 35,000 personnel with around 270 combat aircraft in 2006. Video: Russia's naval task force exercises in the Atlantic. 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She was launched in 1985, commissioned in 1990, and became fully operational in 1995. Defense expenditures were severely reduced. Although the Russians introduced modern naval mining in the Baltic and repelled the Siege of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy in the Pacific, Sevastopol was finally surrendered on honourable terms but only after the Russians sank their ships to prevent outside use of the harbor. In fact, it became a hallmark of Soviet design to place large anti-ship missiles onto relatively small and fast missile boats. Most recently, Admiral Kuznetsov was deployed to the Mediterranean in late 2016 and early 2017 to support Russian operations in Syria. Farquaharson's task in Russia was to create and administer a School of Mathematics and Navigation. To prevent pipes bursting, the water is turned off to most of the cabins, and half the latrines do not work. The Russian Navy retains a rigid structure, whose levels of command could, according to military regulations, be directly equaled to the corresponding ground and air forces counterparts: (Главнокомандующий Военно-морским флотом Российской Федерации), (Главнокомандующий Сухопутными войсками Российской Федерации), (Главнокомандующий Воздушно-космическими силами Российской Федерации), (Начальник штаба — первый заместитель Главнокомандующего ВМФ), (Начальник Главного штаба Сухопутных войск — первый заместитель главнокомандующего Сухопутными войсками), Chief of the Main Staff and First Deputy Commander of the Aerospace Forces, (Начальник Главного штаба — первый заместитель Главнокомандующего Воздушно-космическими силами), Lieutenant general (Marines and Naval Aviation). In addition the Kamov Ka-52K "Katran" attack helicopter, naval variant of the Kamov Ka-50, can also be included amongst its air wing. , The Chinese Type 001 ships are configured as aircraft carriers. 2003 saw a major increase in activity, including several major exercises. The Kuznetsov-class ships were described by their Soviet builders as Tyazholiy Avianesushchiy Kreyser (TAKR or TAVKR) – "heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser” – intended to support and defend strategic missile-carrying submarines, surface ships, and maritime missile-carrying aircraft of the Soviet fleet. The massive ground forces formations left landlocked in the Kaliningrad Oblast were transferred from the ground forces to naval command and control. Many ships were scrapped or laid up as accommodation ships at naval bases, and the building program was essentially stopped. The air-defense system consists of FL-3000N surface-to-air-missiles and the Type 1130 CIWS. Ascribed to him is the oft quoted statement: "A ruler that has but an army has one hand, but he who has a navy has both. The Soviet Union's classification for the class was as a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser, which permits the ships to transit the Turkish Straits without violating the Montreux Convention, however the Chinese variants are classified as aircraft carriers. During the Second Azov campaign of 1696 against the Ottoman Empire, the Russians employed for the first time 2 warships, 4 fireships, 23 galleys and 1300 strugs, built on the Voronezh River. Navy Deputy Commander-in-Chief Vice-Adm, On 24 September 2008, the Russian frigate. It included surface firings, air defence, and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) exercises. As of 2008 the conscription term was reduced to one year and a major downsizing and reorganization were underway. For the most part, Russian sailors welcomed the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which they participated. The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier (Russian: Авиано́сцы ти́па «Кузнецо́в»), Soviet designation Project 11435, is a class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers operated by the Russian and Chinese navies. She was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein with a European design.  Subsequent to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014, this agreement has been officially invalidated by the Russian State Duma. These boats were capable of transporting up to 80 men. Since 2017, by the decree of the President of Russia dated 27 July 2017, the tradition of holding the Main Naval Parade in St. Petersburg on the Navy Day has been restored. The cruise missile launchers were never installed, and the launcher base was removed during the refit to incorporate a larger hangar bay. The coastal defence troops of the Russian Navy are conventional mechanised brigades with the main task to prevent enemy amphibious landings. , Several design changes were made to the Type 002 aircraft carrier. In some respects, including speed and reactor technology, later Soviet submarines were, and remain, some of the world's best. During the Siege of Sevastopol in 1854–1855, Russian sailors set an example of using all means possible for defending their base from land and sea. In its fleet defense role, Admiral Kuznetsov's P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 NATO reporting name: Shipwreck) anti-ship cruise missiles, 3K95 Kinzhal (Gauntlet) surface-to-air missiles, and Su-33 (Flanker-D) aircraft are its main weapons. Russian Federation Navy. The resulting impact of such a cut on Russian Navy modernization plans was not immediately apparent. , On 27 December 2015, state-owned United Shipbuilding Corporation declared that by 2019 the company would have the technical ability to build aircraft and helicopter carriers, which came as some surprise to analysts as previously the company had stated carrier-building would not take place until 2025 at the earliest. Soon after the war Russia devoted a significant portion of its military spending to an ambitious shipbuilding program aimed at replacing lost warships with modern dreadnoughts. In 2008, plans were announced to move the headquarters to the Admiralty building in St. Petersburg, the historic location of the headquarters of the Imperial Russian Navy. The Tu-22Ms have been transferred to the Aerospace Forces and since then the combat arm of the Naval Aviation is built around Sukhoi Su-33s, Mikoyan MiG-29Ks, with Sukhoi Su-30s and Sukhoi Su-34s replacing the obsolete Sukhoi Su-24s. These are being complemented by new Yasen and Khabarovsk-class SSGNs, as well as conventional submarines of the Improved Kilo and Lada classes. The Russian Naval Infantry are the amphibious force of the Russian Navy and can trace their origins back to 1705, when Peter the Great issued a decree for an infantry regiment "of naval equipage". Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, the construction of the first three-masted ship to be built entirely within Russia was finished in 1636. During a major overhaul set to begin in September 2017, the P-700 tubes will be replaced with new vertical launch tubes capable of housing newer Kalibr and P-800 Oniks cruise missiles. Originally designed for the Soviet Navy, the Kuznetsov-class ships use a ski-jump to launch high-performance conventional aircraft in a STOBAR configuration. The 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a severe decline in the Russian Navy. With the end of the Cold War a significant reduction in forces followed. In 1906 rebellious soldiers gained control of some Helsinki coastal fortifications during events known as the Viapori Rebellion, which was subsequently put down, following bombardments from ships of the Baltic Fleet which remained loyal to the Tsarist government.  Their primary shortcomings were insufficient noise damping (American boats were quieter) and sonar technology. "We are already building practically as many ships as we did in Soviet times," First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said during a visit to Severodvinsk in July 2007, "The problem now is not lack of money, but how to optimize production so that the navy can get new ships three, not five, years after laying them down. It was in 1826 that the Russians built their first armed steamboat Izhora. China subsequently constructed a third ship to a modified Type 002 design, commissioning Shandong in 2019. The Pacific Fleet also includes coastal combatants such as corvettes (as of 2020, 23 vessels of older classes projected for replacement in the 2020s), patrol ships, mine warfare ships, light amphibious ships, and support vessels. Brigade of Ships in Construction or Repair (, The departments of the Ship's Company are called Combat Units (, aircraft carrier (heavy aviation-carrying cruiser (, nuclear battlecruiser (heavy nuclear missile cruiser (, large destroyer (guided missile destroyer 1st rank (, small destroyer (guided missile destroyer 2nd rank (, coastal patrol vessel (small artillery ship (, missile fast attack craft (missile cutter (, gun fast attack craft (artillery cruiser (, torpedo fast attack craft (torpedo cutter (, Shipborne aviation (fighters and ASW aircraft), In August 2009, the news media reported that two, In August 2012, the news media published an unconfirmed report that another, In February 2008 a Russian naval task force completed a two-month deployment in the, In October 2008, a naval task group from the, 11 October 2008, Russian warships bound for Venezuela, including the nuclear-powered cruiser, On 20 October 2016, a Northern Fleet task group headed by, On 17 February 2017, the Russian Navy surveillance vessel SSV-175.  Funds were only allocated for the completion of ships ordered prior to the collapse of the USSR, as well as for refits and repairs on fleet ships taken out of service since. In 1668, they built a 26-gun ship, the Oryol (Орёл, or eagle), a yacht, a boat with a mast and bowsprit, and a few rowboats. , On 16 October 2008, the speaker of Russia's upper house of parliament did not preclude Russia asking for a resumption of a naval presence in Yemen.  The Russian Navy had been planning to procure a new class of destroyer, the general-purpose Project 21956. effort using a Royal Navy unmanned submersible in the Far East in early August 2005. However, the construction times for these ships tended to stretch out extensively: in 2003 it was reported that the Akula-class submarine Nerpa had been under construction for fifteen years. The Steregushchiy-class corvettes, the lead ship of which was laid down on 21 December 2001, is the first new surface construction since the collapse of the Soviet Union, while the new Admiral Sergei Gorshkov class frigates marks the first attempt of the Navy to return to the construction of large blue water capable vessels. The Russian Naval Infantry is a mechanised force, organised in brigades, independent regiments and independent battalions. Even at the height of the Kosovo War, a planned task group deployment to the Mediterranean was reduced to the dispatch of the intelligence ship Liman. During World War I, the fleets played a limited role in the Eastern Front, due to heavy defensive and offensive mining on both sides. The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier (Russian: Авиано́сцы ти́па «Кузнецо́в»), Soviet designation Project 11435, is a class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers operated by the Russian and Chinese navies. However, the Russian Navy itself does not use this convention. General outline of … In 1998, the unfinished hull was sold by Ukraine to what was apparently a Chinese travel agency for ostensible use as a floating hotel and casino. Отряд кораблей Тихоокеанского флота в составе большого противолодочного корабля «Адмирал Виноградов» и танкера «Борис Бутома» закончил патрулирование в районе Африканского рога, "Адмирал Пантелеев" вернулся во Владивосток после успешно выполненной миссии -Русское зарубежье, российские соотечественники, русские за границей, русские за рубежом, соотечественники, русскоязычное население, русские общины, диаспора, эмиграция, Military history of the Russian Federation, Awards and decorations of the Russian Federation, Awards and Emblems of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Honorary titles of the Russian Federation, Lists of Russian Naval Vessels (World Navies Today). The modern Russian Navy was created at the initiative of Peter the Great. At 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph), her maximum economical range is 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi).  According to the Russian Defense Ministry, share of modern armament in the Navy has reached more than 50% in 2014. The flight deck has a total area of 14,700 square metres (158,000 sq ft). [needs update] Out of 4.9 trillion rubles ($192.16 billion) allocated for military rearmament, 25 percent will go into building new ships. Known first as Riga and then Varyag, she was laid down by the Nikolayev South Shipyard in 1985 and launched in 1988. , As of February 2008, the Russian Navy had 44 nuclear submarines with 24 operational; 19 diesel-electric submarines, 16 operational; and 56 first and second rank surface combatants, 37 operational. Russia's military budget expanded from 1998 until 2015, but economic problems including a sharp decline in oils led to budget cuts in 2016. Unquestionably the most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev, who, in 1648, sailed the entire length of present-day Russia along the Arctic coast. Since its formation it has seen action in the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the Russo-Japanese War, the First and Second World Wars, and the Chechen and Georgian conflicts. The Naval Spetsnaz brigades are part of the Main Intelligence Directorate attached to the respective fleets and the Counter-Diversionary Forces and Assets (ПДСС) (which are units, protecting the Navy from incursions of enemy special forces) fall within the Coastal Forces. At first, the Vladimirskiy Prikaz was in charge of shipbuilding. On 7 December 1941, the three Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers were USS Enterprise (CV-6), USS Lexington (CV-2), and USS Saratoga(CV-3). For long-range air defense, Kuznetsov carries 24 vertical launchers for Tor missile system (SA-N-9 Gauntlet) surface-to-air missiles with 192 missiles. Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov was designed by the Neva Design Bureau, St. Petersburg, and built at the Nikolayev South Shipyard (Chernomorskoye Shipyard) in the Ukrainian SSR. Basic principles of the Russian Navy, its educational and training methods, as well as methods for conducting military action were all summarized in the Naval Regulations (1720) penned by Peter the Great. The Russian Navy deploys a large collection of surface and underwater vessels for its modern force - though it still lacks in some areas. During the Mediterranean expedition of 1799, Fyodor Ushakov single-handedly carved out the Greek Republic of Seven Islands, proceeding to clear from the French Corfu and all the Ionian islands. Later on, these functions were transferred to the Russian Admiralty. Although neither party lacked courage, the Russians were defeated by the Japanese in the Battle of Port Arthur, which was the first time in warfare that mines were used for offensive purposes. In late 2000, Admiral Kuznetsov went to sea for recovery and salvage operations for the submarine Kursk. The base also deploys counter-diversion combat divers and possibly a coastal defence ground formation of marines and coastal artillery. Nevertheless, by 2020 there were reports that the financial impacts of the collapse in world oil prices, as well as of the Covid-19 pandemic, might impact the scope of some of these modernization plans.. The 55th Naval Infantry Division of the Pacific Fleet has been disbanded in 2009 and replaced by two separate brigades. In March 1921, the sailors of Kronshtadt rebelled against the Bolsheviks, demanding freedom of speech and closing of concentration camps, but this belated revolt was ruthlessly suppressed by Leon Trotsky. The ship was laid down in 2013 at the Dalian naval shipyard and was launched on 26 April 2017.  In 2013 some analysts suggested that the rise in gas and oil prices has enabled a sort of renaissance of the Russian Navy due to increased available funds, which may have allowed Russia to begin "developing the capacity to modernize". The geography of the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk as well as the Caspian Sea makes the deployment of shore-based, anti-ship systems in an area-denying role very effective. The involvement of Admiral Kuznetsov and nuclear-powered cruiser Pyotr Velikiy was overshadowed however by two ballistic missile launch failures, made more embarrassing because President Vladimir Putin was afloat aboard the Typhoon-class SSBN Arkhangelsk to witness the tests. A major result of this tour was the hiring of large numbers of foreign specialists of various expertise, including mathematicians. The vessel was named Riga, Leonid Brezhnev, and Tbilisi, before finally being named after Soviet admiral Nikolay Kuznetsov. , Admiral Kuznetsov, the flagship of the Russian Navy, Missile range instrumentation ship Marshal Krylov, Since 2012 the headquarters of the Russian Navy (Russian Navy Main Staff) is once again located in the Admiralty in Saint Petersburg. , The second hull of the Kuznetsov class took a much more roundabout route to active service. U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence. With Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania declaring independence at the end of the Soviet Union the Baltic Military District practically disintegrated. However, there is no tonnage restriction on other capital ships operated by Black Sea Powers. Neither of the Delta IV-class Novomoskovsk nor Kareliya were able to successfully launch what were apparently RSM-54 SLBMs. At about the same time, Aleksey Krylov elaborated the modern floodability theory. The Northern Fleet also includes patrol ships, mine countermeasures vessels, light amphibious ships and support and logistic ships. Because of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the three Kuznetsov-class ships were built over a protracted construction period of almost four decades. During the Great Northern War of 1700–1721, the Russians built the Baltic Fleet and the city of St. Petersburg. Jane's Fighting Ships commented in 2004 that the construction programme was too focused on Cold War scenarios, given the submarine emphasis. , In 2012, President Vladimir Putin announced a plan to build 51 modern ships and 24 submarines by 2020.  The ship was named after the province where the shipyard is located, and its Chinese ship class is Type 001.  The project was reportedly suspended in 2020, apparently in favor of the less expensive Project 22350 Admiral Gorshkov-class frigates. Length, width, and displacement have been slightly increased. Since its formation, it has participated in the Russian Civil War, World War II and in many other conflicts throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia (statement requires source citation). In the Netherlands, he became acquainted with the work of the mathematicians Hans Gouda, Dirk Raven, and Hans Isbrandtsen Hoogzaat, which sparked his enthusiasm for the value of mathematics. As a consequence, the Russian sailing fleet lost its significance and was rapidly replaced by steamboats, including the first steel armored gunship Opyt and one of the first seafaring ironclads Pyotr Velikiy. The ship's 12 anti-ship cruise missiles are located in launchers below the flight deck, just aft of the ski-jump. Originally designed for the Soviet Navy, the Kuznetsov-class ships use a ski-jump to launch high-performance conventional aircraft in a STOBAR configuration. Admiral Kuznetsov is conventionally powered by eight gas-fired[clarification needed] boilers and four steam turbines, each producing 50,000 hp (37 MW), driving four shafts with fixed-pitch propellers.  The heavy surface armament makes Kuznetsov different from other countries' aircraft carriers, which carry only defensive armament and rely on their aircraft for strike power. The aircraft carriers are of a STOBAR configuration: Short Take-Off But Arrested Recovery. Two ships were originally laid down at the Nikolayev South Shipyard in the Ukrainian SSR, to be followed by the first of the Ulyanovsk-class nuclear-powered supercarriers.   Since the fall of the Soviet Union however, it has been significantly reduced in size. Operating around "The Boat" is a unique … Between 1803 and 1855, Russian sailors undertook over 40 circumnavigations and distant voyages, which played an important role in exploration of the Far East and culminated in Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen's discovery of Antarctica.  Turkey has allowed Admiral Kuznetsov to pass through the Straits, and no other signatory to the Montreux Convention has objected to its designation as an aircraft cruiser. For their black uniforms and ferocious performance in combat in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea regions during World War II they received the nickname "The Black Death" (German: der schwarze Tod). For defense against underwater attack, the ship carries the UDAV-1 ASW rocket launcher. With the reform measures going into force the number of Military Districts was reduced and became new Joint Strategic Commands and the four fleets and one flotilla were subordinated to them with status equal to the Ground Forces and the Air Forces armies. Each brigade has a tank battalion, a self-propelled artillery battalion, a self-propelled air defence battalion, mechanised marine infantry battalions, other support units and one Airborne Assault Naval Infantry Battalion (десантно-штурмовой батальон морской пехоты), parachute and air assault qualified, with the mission to spearhead amphibious landings.  The primary aircraft carried are Sukhoi Su-33 fighters, naval variants of the Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. The warships of the Baltic Fleet sent to the Far East were lost in the Battle of Tsushima. , In a May 2017 ten year defence review the development of a new aircraft carrier and nuclear powered destroyers was cancelled in favour of concentrating modernisation efforts on the nuclear triad. The Russian Navy consists of four fleets and one flotilla with 3 of 4 fleets and the Caspian Flotilla subordinated to the newly formed Military Districts-Joint Operational Strategic Commands. Russian naval manpower is a mixture of conscripts serving one-year terms and volunteers (Officers and Ratings). On 19 November 2008, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy Admiral Vysotskiy, speaking to the official news agency, From 11 January through 17 March 2009, the, From 26 April through 7 June 2009, the Pacific Fleet destroyer, On 29 June 2009, the Pacific Fleet destroyer, Reuben Johnson, "Russian Navy 'faces irreversible collapse,'", "Russia Will Not Build Aircraft Carriers Till 2010. He was accompanied by Stephen Gwyn (1684–1720) and Richard Grice (1682?–1709), who were graduates of the England's Royal Mathematical School. The Fleet consists of:.  A second Borei (Aleksandr Nevskiy) was undergoing sea trials and entered service on 21 December 2013.  The Republic of Ragusa became one of the chief carriers of the Mediterranean in 1783 with the help of the U.S., when Britain acknowledges the United States independence, although the Americans agreed to allow Dubrovnik's ships free passage in their ports. It does not include special forces. The submarine and surface forces form the backbone of the Navy. The fleet also has various other facilities on the Crimean Peninsula and facilities in Krasnodar Kray. Kamov Ka-27 naval utility helicopters and its subsequent variants make up the helicopter wing, providing anti-submarine, maritime patrol and naval assault mobility capabilities. Due to the closed nature of the Caspian Sea (still connected to the Baltic and Black Seas through the Volga River and the system of rivers and canals and navigable for ships of corvette size) its Caspian Flotilla had an even more limited role than the Fleets and played a defensive role supporting the Main Command of the Troops of the Southern Direction in Baku. The Navy Staff finally relocated there in November 2012.. The fixed-wing aircraft on Kuznetsov are intended for air superiority operations to protect a deployed task force.  Lad'ya (ладья in Russian or sea boat) was a typical boat used by the army of Novgorod (length 30 meters with a width of five to six meters, and two or three masts, with the armament of battering rams and catapults, complement: 50 to 60 men). Although technical and financial problems have limited operations, Admiral Kuznetsov is expected to remain in service until approximately 2025. , The Chinese Navy regards its Type 001 ships as aircraft carriers. Due to Russia's increased interests in the Arctic region and the importance of Russia's western/northwestern maritime defense the Northern Fleet, originally part of the Joint Strategic Command West (Western Military District), on 12 December 2014 became the basis for the newly formed fifth Northern Fleet Joint Strategic Command. " The symbols of the Russian Navy, the St. Andrew's ensign (seen to the right), and most of its traditions were established personally by Peter I. For close-range air defense, the ship carries eight Kashtan close-in weapon system (CIWS) mounts. INS Viraat holds the world record, as mentioned in the Guinness Book of records, for … , Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits § Aircraft carriers, Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, List of aircraft carriers of Russia and the Soviet Union, List of ships of Russia by project number, "Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov", "Captain delegation of U.S. Navy visits Chinese Liaoning aircraft carrier", "Kuznetsov Class (Type 1143.5) Heavy Aircraft Carrying Cruiser, Russia", "Russia's Carrier Was Designed To Be Heavily Armed Even Without Its Air Wing", "Russia's Putin drafts new rearmament program", Russian aircraft carrier to be armed with Poliment-Redut SAM, "Belching smoke through the Channel, Russian aircraft carrier so unreliable it sails with its own breakdown tug", "Chinese Navy Liaoning Aircraft Carrier's H/PJ-14 (Type 1130) new generation CIWS", https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-launches-first-home-built-aircraft-carrier-boosting-naval-power-1493182896, "China Commissions 2nd Aircraft Carrier, Challenging U.S. Dominance", "Further progress made on China's Type 001A carrier", "Russia To Modernize Its Lone Aircraft Carrier Next Year, New Carrier Program Could Start in 2025", "China's first aircraft carrier 'starts sea trials, "Liaoning Ship's first berthing at home port", "China's Liaoning carrier enters service", "Work under way on China's second aircraft carrier at Dalian yard", "A Brief Look at Russian Aircraft Carrier Development", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kuznetsov-class_aircraft_carrier&oldid=1005399841, Admiral Kuznetsov-class aircraft carriers, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 3,800 nmi (7,000 km; 4,400 mi) at 29 kn (54 km/h; 33 mph), This page was last edited on 7 February 2021, at 13:42. 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Commissioned when the Soviet naval Infantry and their Russian successors have a Military Fleet in original. Undergoing Sea trials began on 13 May 2018, [ 3 ] the primary aircraft carried are Sukhoi Su-33,! Lada classes squadrons and flotillas of mixed compsition together with land forces significant naval Battle involving sailing ships heavily..